Learning by problem solving
Within the Cognitive Tutor unit students are asked for the value steps of each problem. They need to find the correct values, ideally by finding what principle should be applied and figuring out how to use the principle to find the correct values.
Some relevant literature:
- the "testing effect" (e.g., Roediger & Karpicke)
- the "expertise reversal effect" in connection with worked examples (Kalyuga, Sweller, et al)
- "learning by doing" -- See Dewey's 1916 book "Democracy and Education", chpt 14; Schank; Simon (e.g., Anzai & Simon in Psych Review)
- the cognitive tutor principle: "Present instruction in a problem solving context" (Anderson, Corbett, Koedinger, & Pelletier, 1995).
- more generally, the idea of "proceduralization" in ACT-R theory (e.g., Anderson, 1983)