Probably due to the generativity of Active Processing, tests have been shown to be more effective then passive presentation of material. See also Practice at Retrieval and Learning by problem solving.
- Carrier, M., & Pashler, H. (1992). The influence of retrieval on retention. Memory & Cognition, 20(6), 633-642.
- Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger III, H. L. (2007). Expanding retrieval practice promotes short-term retention, but equally spaced retrieval enhances long-term retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33(4), 704-719.
- Pavlik Jr., P. I. (2006). Understanding and applying the dynamics of test practice and study practice [Electronic Version]. Instructional Science from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11251-006-9013-2