Analogical comparison principle
- 1 Brief statement of principle
- 2 Description of principle
- 3 Experimental support
- 4 Theoretical rationale
- 5 Conditions of application
- 6 Caveats, limitations, open issues, or dissenting views
- 7 Variations (descendants)
- 8 Generalizations (ascendants)
- 9 References
Brief statement of principle
Analogical comparison can facilitate schema abstraction and transfer of that knowledge to new problem. By comparing the commonalities between two examples, students can focus on the causal structure and improve their learning about the concept.
Description of principle
Empirical and correlational support
Research studies of mathematics classrooms show use of this principle correlates with cross-country standardized achievement results (Richland, Zur, Holyoak, 2007).
Laboratory experiment support
Analogical comparison has also been shown to improve learning even when both examples are not initially well understood (Kurtz, Miao, & Gentner, 2001; Gentner Lowenstein, & Thompson, 2003). By comparing the commonalities between two examples, students could focus on the causal structure and improve their learning about the concept. Kurtz et al. (2001) showed that students who were learning about the concept of heat transfer learned more when comparing examples than when studying each example separately.
In vivo experiment support
Conditions of application
Caveats, limitations, open issues, or dissenting views
- Richland, L.E., Zur, O., Holyoak, K.J. (2007). Cognitive Supports for Analogies in the Mathematics Classroom. Science, 316, pp.1128-1129.