DiBiano Personally Relevant Algebra Problems

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Robust Learning in Culturally and Personally Relevant Algebra Problem Scenarios

Candace DiBiano, Anthony Petrosino, Jim Greeno, and Milan Sherman

Summary Tables

PIs Candace DiBiano & Anthony Petrosino
Other Contributers
  • Graduate Student: Milan Sherman
  • Staff: Jim Greeno

Pre Study

Study Start Date 09/01/08
Study End Date 12/15/08
Study Site Austin ISD, Texas
Number of Students N = 200
Average # of hours per participant 3 hrs.

Full Study

Study Start Date 2/1/09 or 9/1/09
Study End Date 6/1/09 or 12/15/09
LearnLab Site TBD
LearnLab Course Algebra
Number of Students N = 60-90
Average # of hours per participant 1 hr
Data in DataShop n/a


In the original development of the PUMP Algebra Tutor (PAT), teachers had designed the algebra problem scenarios to be "culturally and personally relevant to students" (Koedinger, 2001). However, observations and discussions with teachers in Austin ISD suggest that the problem scenarios are disconnected from the lives of typical urban students. This study will examine whether and the mechanisms by which cultural and personal familiarity with problem scenario context affect comprehension and robust learning. We will use the medium of Cognitive Tutor Algebra for the in-vivo portion of this study, but our aim is not to improve the quality of the software’s problem scenarios. It is instead to study how student diversity affects cognition and learning, by using the power of a computer system that has the ability to do what classroom teachers cannot – personalize each problem to the background and interests of each individual student.

The research will begin in Fall of 2008 with a study of the cultural and personal interests of urban students in Austin ISD. Freshman algebra students will be surveyed and interviewed over their interests, such as sports, music, movies, etc., and the results of this study will be used to rewrite the algebra problem scenarios in one section of the Cognitive Tutor software. Also during the Fall of 2008, a smaller group of students at a Pittsburgh Learnlab site will be surveyed on their interests to ensure they are comparable to Austin students. In the Spring of 2009 at the Pittsburgh Learnlab site (*this may be delayed until Fall 2009), the Cognitive Tutor software will be programmed to give students an interests survey, and then select problem scenarios that match user interests. The resulting robust learning, measured by curriculum progress and mastery of knowledge components, will be analyzed with a 3-group design to measure the effects of the personalization.

This research will be integrated with a study incorporating think-aloud protocols of students solving algebra problems in familiar and unfamiliar contexts to examine how personal relevance and cultural familiarity interacts with conceptual difficulty in interpreting the problem.

Background and Significance

This research direction was initiated by the observation of classrooms in Austin, Texas using the Cognitive Tutor Algebra I software, as well as discussions with teachers that had implemented this software at some point in their teaching career. Teacher complaints were consistently centered not around the interface, the feedback, or the cognitive model of the software, but on the problem scenarios. Teachers explained that their urban students found problems about harvesting wheat “silly,” “dry,” and irrelevant. Teachers also complained that some of the vocabulary words in the Cognitive Tutor problem scenarios (one example was the word “greenhouse”) confused their students because urban freshman do not typically discuss these topics in their everyday speech. It’s important to note that as part of the development of the PUMP Algebra Tutor (PAT), teachers had designed problems to be "culturally and personally relevant to students" (Koedinger, 2001). This research is designed to empirically test the claim that the cultural and personal relevance of problem scenarios affects robust learning.

Note: Currently, no Austin ISD schools use the Cognitive Tutor Algebra software, due to lack of teacher and administrative support, and a “back to the basics” political shift in Texas. I previously conducted research on the plethora of logistical, technical, political, and pedagogical dilemmas Texas teachers encounter when trying to implement the Cognitive Tutor software, which is why I believe strongly that in order for this research to be feasible, the in vivo portion needs to be conducted at a Learnlab site.

Research question

  • How will robust learning be affected when personalization through culturally relevant problem scenarios is implemented instead of the current problem scenarios in the Cognitive Tutor Algebra I software?
  • How will robust learning be affected when current problem scenarios in the Cognitive Tutor Algebra I software are stripped of many of their contextual clues?

Independent variables

Three treatment groups:

  • Students recieve current Cognitive Tutor Algebra problems
  • Students recieve matched Cognitive Tutor Algebra problems stripped of most contextual clues
  • Students recieve matched culturally relevant Cognitive Tutor Algebra problems personalized according to student interest survey


Students in the treatment with culturally and personally relevant problem scenarios will show improved performance in terms of some measures of robust learning as a result of two factors: (1) increased intrinsic motivation (such as with the REAP Tutor study) and (2) formation of a more detailed and meaningful situation model (Nathan, Kintsh, & Young, 1992).

Dependent variables


Connection to Clusters