DiBiano Personally Relevant Algebra Problems
Contents
Robust Learning in Culturally and Personally Relevant Algebra Problem Scenarios
Candace DiBiano, Anthony Petrosino, Jim Greeno, and Milan Sherman
Summary Tables
PIs  Candace DiBiano & Anthony Petrosino 
Other Contributers 

Pre Study
Study Start Date  09/01/08 
Study End Date  12/15/08 
Study Site  Austin ISD, Texas 
Number of Students  N = 200 
Average # of hours per participant  3 hrs. 
Full Study
Study Start Date  2/1/09 or 9/1/09 
Study End Date  6/1/09 or 12/15/09 
LearnLab Site  TBD 
LearnLab Course  Algebra 
Number of Students  N = 6090 
Average # of hours per participant  1 hr 
Data in DataShop  n/a 
Abstract
In the original development of the PUMP Algebra Tutor (PAT), teachers had designed the algebra problem scenarios to be "culturally and personally relevant to students" (Koedinger, 2001). However, observations and discussions with teachers in Austin ISD suggest that the problem scenarios are disconnected from the lives of typical urban students. This study will examine whether and the mechanisms by which cultural and personal familiarity with problem scenario context affect comprehension and robust learning. We will use the medium of Cognitive Tutor Algebra for the invivo portion of this study, but our aim is not to improve the quality of the software’s problem scenarios. It is instead to study how student diversity affects cognition and learning, by using the power of a computer system that has the ability to do what classroom teachers cannot – personalize each problem to the background and interests of each individual student.
The research will begin in Fall of 2008 with a study of the cultural and personal interests of urban students in Austin ISD. Freshman algebra students will be surveyed and interviewed over their interests, such as sports, music, movies, etc., and the results of this study will be used to rewrite the algebra problem scenarios in one section of the Cognitive Tutor software. Also during the Fall of 2008, a smaller group of students at a Pittsburgh Learnlab site will be surveyed on their interests to ensure they are comparable to Austin students. In the Spring of 2009 at the Pittsburgh Learnlab site (*this may be delayed until Fall 2009), the Cognitive Tutor software will be programmed to give students an interests survey, and then select problem scenarios that match user interests. The resulting robust learning, measured by curriculum progress and mastery of knowledge components, will be analyzed with a 3group design to measure the effects of the personalization.
This research will be integrated with a study incorporating thinkaloud protocols of students solving algebra problems in familiar and unfamiliar contexts to examine how personal relevance and cultural familiarity interacts with conceptual difficulty in interpreting the problem.
Background and Significance
This research direction was initiated by the observation of classrooms in Austin, Texas using the Cognitive Tutor Algebra I software, as well as discussions with teachers that had implemented this software at some point in their teaching career. Teacher complaints were consistently centered not around the interface, the feedback, or the cognitive model of the software, but on the problem scenarios. Teachers explained that their urban students found problems about harvesting wheat “silly,” “dry,” and irrelevant. Teachers also complained that some of the vocabulary words in the Cognitive Tutor problem scenarios (one example was the word “greenhouse”) confused their students because urban freshman do not typically discuss these topics in their everyday speech. It’s important to note that as part of the development of the PUMP Algebra Tutor (PAT), teachers had designed problems to be "culturally and personally relevant to students" (Koedinger, 2001). This research is designed to empirically test the claim that the cultural and personal relevance of problem scenarios affects robust learning.
Note: Currently, no Austin ISD schools use the Cognitive Tutor Algebra software, due to lack of teacher and administrative support, and a “back to the basics” political shift in Texas. I previously conducted research on the plethora of logistical, technical, political, and pedagogical dilemmas Texas teachers encounter when trying to implement the Cognitive Tutor software, which is why I believe strongly that in order for this research to be feasible, the in vivo portion needs to be conducted at a Learnlab site.
Research questions
 How will robust learning be affected when personalization through culturally relevant problem scenarios is implemented instead of the current problem scenarios in the Cognitive Tutor Algebra I software?
 How will robust learning be affected when current problem scenarios in the Cognitive Tutor Algebra I software are stripped of many of their contextual clues?
Independent variables
Three treatment groups:
 Students recieve current Cognitive Tutor Algebra problems
 Students recieve matched Cognitive Tutor Algebra problems stripped of most contextual clues
 Students recieve matched culturally relevant Cognitive Tutor Algebra problems personalized according to student interest survey
Treatment  Example Problem  Recieved By 
Problem scenarios stripped of most context  A task takes 30 minutes to complete. How many times can you complete the task in 3 hours?  2530 randomlyassigned Algebra I students at Learnlab site 
Normal Cognitive Tutor Algebra problem scenarios  A skier noticed that she can complete a run in about 30 minutes. A run consists of riding the ski lift up the hill, and skiing back down. If she skiis for 3 hours, how many runs will she have completed?  2530 randomlyassigned Algebra I students at Learnlab site 
Culturally relevant personalized problem scenarios  (student selects personal interest in T.V. shows, cultural survey/interview shows strong interest among urban youth in reality shows)
You noticed that the reality shows you watch on T.V. are all 30 minutes long. If you’ve been watching reality shows for 3 hours, how many have you watched? 
2530 randomlyassigned Algebra I students at Learnlab site 
Hypothesis
Students in the treatment with culturally and personally relevant problem scenarios will show improved performance in terms of some measures of robust learning as a result of two factors: (1) increased intrinsic motivation (such as with the REAP Tutor study) (2) formation of a more detailed and meaningful situation model (Nathan, Kintsh, & Young, 1992).