Difference between revisions of "Fading"

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Worked-out steps in a [[worked examples]] are gradually turned into standard problem solving steps by removing the worked-out elements in the steps (the "answers"). Thus, students must generate these steps (or answers) themselves.  
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Fading refers to a reduction in [[assistance]] or [[scaffolding]] over time.  Different dimensions of assistance can be faded:
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* [[Example]] to problem fading: Worked-out steps in a [[worked examples]] are gradually turned into standard problem solving [[step]]s by removing the worked-out elements in the steps (the "answers"). As the [[assistance]] of giving the steps is faded, the steps (the answers) are withheld and the student must generate these steps (or answers) themselves. See [[Does learning from worked-out examples improve tutored problem solving? | Renkl et al. study]].
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* Study to test fading: Study trials, which present facts ([Chinese symbol] means [English word]), can be faded to test trials, which provide a [[cue]] and require students to generate a response ([Chinese symbol] means ?).
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* Timing of feedback fading: [[immediate feedback]] (higher [[assistance]]) can be faded into [[delayed feedback]] (lower [[assistance]]). 
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* Retention interval fading: Short spacing between problems or tests of the same knowledge component (higher assistance) can be faded into longer spacing. See [[Optimizing the practice schedule|Pavlik's study]].
  
 
[[Category:Glossary]]
 
[[Category:Glossary]]
 
[[Category:Independent Variables]]
 
[[Category:Independent Variables]]
 
[[Category: Salden Learning-from-Examples]]
 
[[Category: Salden Learning-from-Examples]]
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[[Category:PSLC General]]

Revision as of 18:18, 19 April 2007

Fading refers to a reduction in assistance or scaffolding over time. Different dimensions of assistance can be faded:

  • Example to problem fading: Worked-out steps in a worked examples are gradually turned into standard problem solving steps by removing the worked-out elements in the steps (the "answers"). As the assistance of giving the steps is faded, the steps (the answers) are withheld and the student must generate these steps (or answers) themselves. See Renkl et al. study.
  • Study to test fading: Study trials, which present facts ([Chinese symbol] means [English word]), can be faded to test trials, which provide a cue and require students to generate a response ([Chinese symbol] means ?).
  • Timing of feedback fading: immediate feedback (higher assistance) can be faded into delayed feedback (lower assistance).
  • Retention interval fading: Short spacing between problems or tests of the same knowledge component (higher assistance) can be faded into longer spacing. See Pavlik's study.