Difference between revisions of "Instructional dimensions root"

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= Instructional dimensions being explored by PSLC projects =
 
= Instructional dimensions being explored by PSLC projects =
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[This has not been vetted by Ken, Chuck or the EC.  Consider it personal opinion. -- Kurt]
  
 
Existing PSLC experiments vary values along many instructional dimensions, so to simplify the exposition, the dimensions are grouped into 5 major classes and a 6th miscellaneous class.  Each class of dimensions is listed below, with its dimensions beneath it.  For each dimension, PSLC studies that compare values along that dimension are listed with it.  
 
Existing PSLC experiments vary values along many instructional dimensions, so to simplify the exposition, the dimensions are grouped into 5 major classes and a 6th miscellaneous class.  Each class of dimensions is listed below, with its dimensions beneath it.  For each dimension, PSLC studies that compare values along that dimension are listed with it.  
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== Repetition ==
 
== Repetition ==
In many kinds of instruction, similar or even identical tasks occur in sequence, with other tasks intervening.  The more similar the tasks and the closer they are together, the easier they are for the student to achieve successfully during training, so the higher their they are in the assistance ordering.
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In many kinds of instruction, similar or even identical tasks occur in sequence, with other tasks intervening.  The more similar the tasks and the closer they are together, the easier they are for the student to achieve successfully during training, so the higher that scheduling/repetition is in the assistance ordering.
* How close together should tasks be? ([[Optimizing the practice schedule | Pavlik et al.]];  [[French gender cues | Presson-MacWhinney]];  [[Japanese fluency| Yoshimura & MacWhinney]];  [[Providing optimal support for robust learning of syntactic constructions in ESL | Levin, Frishkoff, De Jong, Pavlik]])
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* How should tasks be scheduled--that is, what order and spacing should be used? ([[Optimizing the practice schedule | Pavlik et al.]];  [[French gender cues | Presson & MacWhinney]];  [[Japanese fluency| Yoshimura & MacWhinney]];  [[Providing optimal support for robust learning of syntactic constructions in ESL | Levin, Frishkoff, De Jong & Pavlik]])
 
* When time pressure increases, should repetitions use identical or similar tasks? ([[Fostering fluency in second language learning | De Jong & Perfetti]])
 
* When time pressure increases, should repetitions use identical or similar tasks? ([[Fostering fluency in second language learning | De Jong & Perfetti]])
* When tasks are adjacent in the sequence, how can this be used to expedite learning? ([[Using syntactic priming to increase robust learning | De Jong, Perfetti, DeKeyser]];  [[Providing optimal support for robust learning of syntactic constructions in ESL | Levin, Frishkoff, De Jong, Pavlik]])
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* When tasks are adjacent in the sequence, how can this be used to expedite learning? ([[Using syntactic priming to increase robust learning | De Jong, Perfetti & DeKeyser]];  [[Providing optimal support for robust learning of syntactic constructions in ESL | Levin, Frishkoff, De Jong & Pavlik]])
  
 
== Modality ==
 
== Modality ==
Both the presentations and the responses from learners can written, spoken, diagramatic, gestural (e.g., menus), etc.  Two modalities of presentation may in general be more assistive than one.  However, the assistance scale for this design issue needs exploration.
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Both the presentations and the responses from learners can be written, spoken, diagramatic, gestural (e.g., menus), etc.  Two modalities of presentation may in general be more assistive than one.  However, the assistance scale for this design issue needs exploration.
* When practicing vocabulary, how should the stimulus be presented? ([[Mental rotations during vocabulary training |Tokowicz-Degani]];  [[Co-training of Chinese characters|Liu, Perfetti, Dunlap, Zi, Mitchell]]; [[Learning Chinese pronunciation from a “talking head”|Liu, Massaro, Dunlap, Wu, Chen, Chan, Perfetti]])
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* When practicing vocabulary, how should the stimulus be presented? ([[Mental rotations during vocabulary training |Tokowicz & Degani]];  [[Co-training of Chinese characters|Liu, Perfetti, Dunlap, Zi & Mitchell]]; [[Learning Chinese pronunciation from a “talking head”|Liu, Massaro, Dunlap, Wu, Chen, Chan & Perfetti]])
 
* When entering or justifying problem solving steps, are visually contiguous modalities better? ([[Contiguous Representations for Robust Learning (Aleven & Butcher)|Aleven & Butcher]])
 
* When entering or justifying problem solving steps, are visually contiguous modalities better? ([[Contiguous Representations for Robust Learning (Aleven & Butcher)|Aleven & Butcher]])
 
* When presenting problems, does adding a diagram help? ([[Visual Representations in Science Learning |Davenport, Klahr & Koedinger]])
 
* When presenting problems, does adding a diagram help? ([[Visual Representations in Science Learning |Davenport, Klahr & Koedinger]])
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== Explicitness ==
 
== Explicitness ==
Should the instruction present the knowledge to be learned explicitly (typically as text) or let the student infer it from multiple instance?  Some of these dimensions do not (yet?) have a clear assistance ordering for their values.
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Should the instruction present knowledge explicitly (typically as text) or let the student infer it from multiple instances?  Some of these dimensions do not (yet?) have a clear assistance ordering for their values.
 
* When learning vocabulary words, should students be able to easily consult definitions? ([[REAP_main | Juffs & Eskenazi]])
 
* When learning vocabulary words, should students be able to easily consult definitions? ([[REAP_main | Juffs & Eskenazi]])
 
* When parts of a word have meaning, should that be taught explicitly? ([[Learning the role of radicals in reading Chinese | Dunlap, Liu, Perfetti & Wu ]])
 
* When parts of a word have meaning, should that be taught explicitly? ([[Learning the role of radicals in reading Chinese | Dunlap, Liu, Perfetti & Wu ]])
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== Does the tutor or the student do it? ==
 
== Does the tutor or the student do it? ==
 
(This dimension needs a better name) Should the tutor or the student do the steps in solving a problem?  Should the tutor or the student explain the steps of a problem’s solution?  In general, assistance is higher when the tutor does it than when the student does it.
 
(This dimension needs a better name) Should the tutor or the student do the steps in solving a problem?  Should the tutor or the student explain the steps of a problem’s solution?  In general, assistance is higher when the tutor does it than when the student does it.
* Adding example-studying to coached problem. ([[Stoichiometry_Study | McLaren, Koedinger & Yaron]];  [[Effect of adding simple worked examples to problem-solving in algebra learning (Anthony, Yang & Koedinger)| Anthony, Yang & Koedinger]];  [[Does learning from worked-out examples improve tutored problem solving? | Renkl, Aleven & Salden]])
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* Adding example-studying to coached problem. ([[Stoichiometry_Study | McLaren, Koedinger & Yaron]];  [[Effect of adding simple worked examples to problem-solving in algebra learning| Anthony, Yang & Koedinger]];  [[Does learning from worked-out examples improve tutored problem solving? | Renkl, Aleven & Salden]])
 
* During coached problem solving, who detects the errors? ([[Intelligent_Writing_Tutor | Mitamura & Wylie]];  [[The self-correction of speech errors (McCormick, O’Neill & Siskin) | McCormick, O’Neill & Siskin]])
 
* During coached problem solving, who detects the errors? ([[Intelligent_Writing_Tutor | Mitamura & Wylie]];  [[The self-correction of speech errors (McCormick, O’Neill & Siskin) | McCormick, O’Neill & Siskin]])
 
* During coached problem solving, who decides when to ask for a hint? ([[The_Help_Tutor__Roll_Aleven_McLaren | Roll, Aleven & McLaren]];  [[Student_Uncertainty |  Forbes-Riley & Litman]])
 
* During coached problem solving, who decides when to ask for a hint? ([[The_Help_Tutor__Roll_Aleven_McLaren | Roll, Aleven & McLaren]];  [[Student_Uncertainty |  Forbes-Riley & Litman]])
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== Miscellaneous ==
 
== Miscellaneous ==
 
These instructional dimensions fall outside the categories listed above.
 
These instructional dimensions fall outside the categories listed above.
* When a student explains an example, should the to-be-explained steps be always correct, sometimes incorrect, or tutored? ([[Booth |Booth, Siegler, Koedinger & Rittle-Johnson]];  [[Craig_observing|Craig Gadgil & Chi)]])
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* When a student explains an example, should the to-be-explained steps be always correct, sometimes incorrect, or tutored? ([[Booth |Booth, Siegler, Koedinger & Rittle-Johnson]];  [[Craig_observing|Craig Gadgil & Chi]])
 
* Can dictation practice improve subsequent learning? ([[Basic skills training| MacWhinney]]; [[Chinese pinyin dictation | Zhang & MacWhinney]])
 
* Can dictation practice improve subsequent learning? ([[Basic skills training| MacWhinney]]; [[Chinese pinyin dictation | Zhang & MacWhinney]])
 
* How does part-task training transfer to whole-task learning? ([[Composition_Effect__Kao_Roll| Kao, Roll & Koedinger]])
 
* How does part-task training transfer to whole-task learning? ([[Composition_Effect__Kao_Roll| Kao, Roll & Koedinger]])
 
* Does arithmetic over-training transfer to number discimination? ([[Arithmetical fluency project |Fiez]])
 
* Does arithmetic over-training transfer to number discimination? ([[Arithmetical fluency project |Fiez]])
 
* Can an instance-based model of memory explain vocabulary learning effects? ([[A word-experience model of Chinese character learning | Reichle, Perfetti, & Liu]])
 
* Can an instance-based model of memory explain vocabulary learning effects? ([[A word-experience model of Chinese character learning | Reichle, Perfetti, & Liu]])
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* Does dictation practice improve not only dictation but other learning as well? ([[Basic skills training| MacWhinney]])

Latest revision as of 07:44, 8 September 2011

Instructional dimensions being explored by PSLC projects

[This has not been vetted by Ken, Chuck or the EC. Consider it personal opinion. -- Kurt]

Existing PSLC experiments vary values along many instructional dimensions, so to simplify the exposition, the dimensions are grouped into 5 major classes and a 6th miscellaneous class. Each class of dimensions is listed below, with its dimensions beneath it. For each dimension, PSLC studies that compare values along that dimension are listed with it.

Peer collaboration

Problem solving, example studying and many other activities can be done alone, in pairs, or in pairs with various kinds of assistance, such as collaboration scripts. From the standpoint of an individual learner, having a partner offers more assistance than working alone, and having a partner plus other scaffolding offer even more assistance.

Repetition

In many kinds of instruction, similar or even identical tasks occur in sequence, with other tasks intervening. The more similar the tasks and the closer they are together, the easier they are for the student to achieve successfully during training, so the higher that scheduling/repetition is in the assistance ordering.

Modality

Both the presentations and the responses from learners can be written, spoken, diagramatic, gestural (e.g., menus), etc. Two modalities of presentation may in general be more assistive than one. However, the assistance scale for this design issue needs exploration.

Explicitness

Should the instruction present knowledge explicitly (typically as text) or let the student infer it from multiple instances? Some of these dimensions do not (yet?) have a clear assistance ordering for their values.

Does the tutor or the student do it?

(This dimension needs a better name) Should the tutor or the student do the steps in solving a problem? Should the tutor or the student explain the steps of a problem’s solution? In general, assistance is higher when the tutor does it than when the student does it.

Miscellaneous

These instructional dimensions fall outside the categories listed above.