Difference between revisions of "Metacognition"

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Metacognition (in learning): The set of skills that manages the learning process.  
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Metacognition is thinking about cognition (memory, reasoning, learning, etc.) itself.  Most simply, it is thinking about thinking.  Flavell (1979) wrote that "metacognitive knowledge consists primarily of knowledge or beliefs about what factors or variables act and interact in what ways to affect the course and outcome of cognitive enterprises."  Metacognitive learning strategies involve applying metacognitive knowledge in planning, checking, monitoring, selecting, revising, or evaluating.  Such strategies are also referred to as "self-regulated learning" (Winne & Perry, 2000; Zimmerman, 1995). Clark and Mayer (2003) define metacognition as the mind's operating system.  
Clark and Mayer defines Metacognition as the mind's operating system (Clark and Mayer 2003).  
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Metacognitive processes in learning include skills such as planning (the design of the learning process), monitoring (comparing actual progress to the desired one), self assessment (the ability to correctly evaluate one's own knowledge level), and debugging (identifying sources of failure and overcoming those).
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In learning, metacogntion often refers to the set of skills that manages the learning process. These include skills such as planning (the design of the learning process), monitoring (comparing actual progress to the desired one), self assessment (the ability to correctly evaluate one's own knowledge level), and debugging (identifying sources of failure and overcoming those).
  
Brown et al. aruges that "Metacognition refers to one's knowledge and control of the domain cognition. Two primary problems with the term are that (1) it is often difficult to distinguish between what is meta and what is cognitive and (2)there are many different historical roots from which this area of inquiry arose."
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This definition leaves much room for interpretation. Most researchers point out a dichotomy in the nature of metacognitive knowledge: Metacognition includes both ''monitoring of understanding'' (what do I know? knowledge about cognition) and ''monitoring of the learning process'' (managing the problem solving process, regulation of cognition) (Brown et al. 1983, Bransford et al. 2000, Schoenfeld et al. 1992). Brown et al. (1983) summarize these two aspects: "Metacognition refers to one's ''knowledge'' and ''control'' of the domain cognition."
  
"Consider first the interachangeability of cognitive and metacognitive functions. Recent reviews of the literature on, for example, metacognition and reading have been justly criticized on the grounds that they have encouraged the proactice of dubbing as metacognitive any strategic action."
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The [[The Help Tutor Roll Aleven McLaren|Help Tutor project]] provides a nice example of an instructional intervention addressing these two types of metacognitive knowledge:
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* The Self Assessment Tutor component supports knowledge about cognition. It helps students monitor their knowledge level and identify knowledge gaps.
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* The Help Tutor component supports regulation of cognition. It helps students  apply their help-seeking skills appropriately.  
  
"A second source of confusion concerning ... The term metacognition ... is that ... it has been used to refer to two distinct areas of research, namely, knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition."
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Metacognitive knowledge is domain independent to a large degree. However, domain knowledge cannot be ignored. For example, it is hard for students to evaluate their knowledge level without having adequate knowledge about the desired performance and skills. Also, As Brown et al. (1983) note, it is often difficult to distinguish between the metacognitive and the cognitive level. To what extent are strategic skills, which are relevant to specific domains, metacognitive? For example, self-explaining one's answers can be viewed as a domain-level skill or a metacognitive skill.
  
Schoenfeld:
 
"research on metacognition has focused on three related but distinct
 
categories of intellectual behavior:
 
 
1. your knowledge about your own thought processes. How accurate are you in
 
describing your own thinking?
 
 
2. Control, or self-regulation. How well do you keep track of what you're
 
doing when (for example) you're solving problems, and how well (if at all)
 
do you use the input from those observations to guide your problem-solving
 
actions?
 
 
3. Beliefs and intuitions.  What idea about mathematics do you bring to your
 
work in mathematics, and how does that shape the way you do mathematics?"
 
The decision what activities to perform next is an example for a metacognitive question. "
 
 
 
 
Flavell:
 
"Metacognitive knowledge consists primarily of knowledge or beliefs about
 
what factors or variables act and interact in what ways to affect the course
 
and outcome of cognitive enterprises. There are three major categories of
 
these factors or variables-person, task, and strategy."
 
 
 
Metacognitive knowledge is somewhat domain independent.
 
 
 
* This value is being updated and edited.
 
  
 
* Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (2000). How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school. National Academy Press.
 
* Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (2000). How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school. National Academy Press.
* Clark, r. c., & Mayer, r. e. (2003). E-Learning and the science of instruction: proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
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* Brown, A. L., Bransford, J. D., Ferrara, R. A., & Campione, J. C. (1983). Learning, remembering, and understanding. In Handbook of child psychology (pp. 77-166). New York: Wiley.
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* Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2003). E-Learning and the science of instruction: proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
 
* Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive-Developmental Inquiry. American Psychologist, (34), 906-11.
 
* Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive-Developmental Inquiry. American Psychologist, (34), 906-11.
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* Schoenfeld, A. H. (1992). Learning to think mathematically: Problem solving, metacognition, and sense-making in mathematics. In D. Grouws (Eds.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 334-70). New-York: MacMillan.
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* Winne, P.H. & Perry, N.E. (2000). Measuring self-regulated learning. In P. Pintrich, M. Boekaerts, & M. Seidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (p. 531-566). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
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* Zimmerman, B.J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25, 3-17.
  
 
[[Category:Glossary]]
 
[[Category:Glossary]]
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[[Category:Coordinative Learning]]
 
[[Category:Interactive Communication]]
 
[[Category:Interactive Communication]]
 
[[Category:Help Tutor]]
 
[[Category:Help Tutor]]

Latest revision as of 23:31, 8 December 2008

Metacognition is thinking about cognition (memory, reasoning, learning, etc.) itself. Most simply, it is thinking about thinking. Flavell (1979) wrote that "metacognitive knowledge consists primarily of knowledge or beliefs about what factors or variables act and interact in what ways to affect the course and outcome of cognitive enterprises." Metacognitive learning strategies involve applying metacognitive knowledge in planning, checking, monitoring, selecting, revising, or evaluating. Such strategies are also referred to as "self-regulated learning" (Winne & Perry, 2000; Zimmerman, 1995). Clark and Mayer (2003) define metacognition as the mind's operating system.

In learning, metacogntion often refers to the set of skills that manages the learning process. These include skills such as planning (the design of the learning process), monitoring (comparing actual progress to the desired one), self assessment (the ability to correctly evaluate one's own knowledge level), and debugging (identifying sources of failure and overcoming those).

This definition leaves much room for interpretation. Most researchers point out a dichotomy in the nature of metacognitive knowledge: Metacognition includes both monitoring of understanding (what do I know? knowledge about cognition) and monitoring of the learning process (managing the problem solving process, regulation of cognition) (Brown et al. 1983, Bransford et al. 2000, Schoenfeld et al. 1992). Brown et al. (1983) summarize these two aspects: "Metacognition refers to one's knowledge and control of the domain cognition."

The Help Tutor project provides a nice example of an instructional intervention addressing these two types of metacognitive knowledge:

  • The Self Assessment Tutor component supports knowledge about cognition. It helps students monitor their knowledge level and identify knowledge gaps.
  • The Help Tutor component supports regulation of cognition. It helps students apply their help-seeking skills appropriately.

Metacognitive knowledge is domain independent to a large degree. However, domain knowledge cannot be ignored. For example, it is hard for students to evaluate their knowledge level without having adequate knowledge about the desired performance and skills. Also, As Brown et al. (1983) note, it is often difficult to distinguish between the metacognitive and the cognitive level. To what extent are strategic skills, which are relevant to specific domains, metacognitive? For example, self-explaining one's answers can be viewed as a domain-level skill or a metacognitive skill.


  • Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (2000). How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school. National Academy Press.
  • Brown, A. L., Bransford, J. D., Ferrara, R. A., & Campione, J. C. (1983). Learning, remembering, and understanding. In Handbook of child psychology (pp. 77-166). New York: Wiley.
  • Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2003). E-Learning and the science of instruction: proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
  • Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive-Developmental Inquiry. American Psychologist, (34), 906-11.
  • Schoenfeld, A. H. (1992). Learning to think mathematically: Problem solving, metacognition, and sense-making in mathematics. In D. Grouws (Eds.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 334-70). New-York: MacMillan.
  • Winne, P.H. & Perry, N.E. (2000). Measuring self-regulated learning. In P. Pintrich, M. Boekaerts, & M. Seidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (p. 531-566). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
  • Zimmerman, B.J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25, 3-17.