Difference between revisions of "Metacognition"

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* This value is being updated and edited.  
 
* This value is being updated and edited.  
  
Metacognition (in learning): The set of skills that manages the learning process.
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Metacognition: Clark and Mayer defines Metacognition as the mind's operating system (Clark and Mayer 2003). Brown et al. (ref.) aruges that "Metacognition refers to one's knowledge and control of the domain cognition."
Clark and Mayer defines Metacognition as the mind's operating system (Clark and Mayer 2003).  
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Metacognitive processes in learning include skills such as planning (the design of the learning process), monitoring (comparing actual progress to the desired one), self assessment (the ability to correctly evaluate one's own knowledge level), and debugging (identifying sources of failure and overcoming those).
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In learning, Metacogntion often refers to the set of skills that manages the learning process. These include skills such as planning (the design of the learning process), monitoring (comparing actual progress to the desired one), self assessment (the ability to correctly evaluate one's own knowledge level), and debugging (identifying sources of failure and overcoming those).
  
Brown et al. aruges that "Metacognition refers to one's knowledge and control of the domain cognition. Two primary problems with the term are that (1) it is often difficult to distinguish between what is meta and what is cognitive and (2)there are many different historical roots from which this area of inquiry arose."
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This definition is leaves much room for interpretation. Most researchers note the dichotomy of this defintion - it includes both knowledge of the cognitive level (what do I know? knowledge about knowledge) and management of the cognitive level (monitoring performance during problem solving) (Brown et al. 1975, Bransford et al. 2000, Shoenfeld et al. 1992).  
  
"Consider first the interachangeability of cognitive and metacognitive functions. Recent reviews of the literature on, for example, metacognition and reading have been justly criticized on the grounds that they have encouraged the proactice of dubbing as metacognitive any strategic action."
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Also, Brown et al. note that this definition includes to different types of skills: The konwledge about cognition (or knowledge about knowledge, for example, the skill of self assessment), vs. the regulation of congitioin (for example, choosing what actions to perform).
  
"A second source of confusion concerning ... The term metacognition ... is that ... it has been used to refer to two distinct areas of research, namely, knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition."
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Schoenfeld (1992) includes the same two aspects of metacognition: knowledge about knowledge, and self-regulating during problem solving.  
 
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Schoenfeld:
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"research on metacognition has focused on three related but distinct
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categories of intellectual behavior:
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1. your knowledge about your own thought processes. How accurate are you in
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describing your own thinking?
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2. Control, or self-regulation. How well do you keep track of what you're
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doing when (for example) you're solving problems, and how well (if at all)
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do you use the input from those observations to guide your problem-solving
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actions?
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3. Beliefs and intuitions.  What idea about mathematics do you bring to your
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work in mathematics, and how does that shape the way you do mathematics?"
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The decision what activities to perform next is an example for a metacognitive question. "
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As Brown et al. note, it is often difficult to distinguish between the metacognitive and the cognitive level. To what extent are strategic skills, which are relevant to specific domoains, metacognitive?
  
 
Flavell:
 
Flavell:
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* Clark, r. c., & Mayer, r. e. (2003). E-Learning and the science of instruction: proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
 
* Clark, r. c., & Mayer, r. e. (2003). E-Learning and the science of instruction: proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
 
* Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive-Developmental Inquiry. American Psychologist, (34), 906-11.
 
* Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive-Developmental Inquiry. American Psychologist, (34), 906-11.
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* Schoenfeld, A. H. (1992). Learning to think mathematically: Problem solving,
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metacognition, and sense-making in mathematics. In D. Grouws (Eds.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 334-70). New-York: MacMillan.
  
 
[[Category:Glossary]]
 
[[Category:Glossary]]
 
[[Category:Interactive Communication]]
 
[[Category:Interactive Communication]]
 
[[Category:Help Tutor]]
 
[[Category:Help Tutor]]

Revision as of 23:51, 7 February 2007

  • This value is being updated and edited.

Metacognition: Clark and Mayer defines Metacognition as the mind's operating system (Clark and Mayer 2003). Brown et al. (ref.) aruges that "Metacognition refers to one's knowledge and control of the domain cognition."

In learning, Metacogntion often refers to the set of skills that manages the learning process. These include skills such as planning (the design of the learning process), monitoring (comparing actual progress to the desired one), self assessment (the ability to correctly evaluate one's own knowledge level), and debugging (identifying sources of failure and overcoming those).

This definition is leaves much room for interpretation. Most researchers note the dichotomy of this defintion - it includes both knowledge of the cognitive level (what do I know? knowledge about knowledge) and management of the cognitive level (monitoring performance during problem solving) (Brown et al. 1975, Bransford et al. 2000, Shoenfeld et al. 1992).

Also, Brown et al. note that this definition includes to different types of skills: The konwledge about cognition (or knowledge about knowledge, for example, the skill of self assessment), vs. the regulation of congitioin (for example, choosing what actions to perform).

Schoenfeld (1992) includes the same two aspects of metacognition: knowledge about knowledge, and self-regulating during problem solving.


As Brown et al. note, it is often difficult to distinguish between the metacognitive and the cognitive level. To what extent are strategic skills, which are relevant to specific domoains, metacognitive?

Flavell: "Metacognitive knowledge consists primarily of knowledge or beliefs about what factors or variables act and interact in what ways to affect the course and outcome of cognitive enterprises. There are three major categories of these factors or variables-person, task, and strategy."


Metacognitive knowledge is somewhat domain independent.



  • Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (2000). How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school. National Academy Press.
  • Clark, r. c., & Mayer, r. e. (2003). E-Learning and the science of instruction: proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
  • Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive-Developmental Inquiry. American Psychologist, (34), 906-11.
  • Schoenfeld, A. H. (1992). Learning to think mathematically: Problem solving,

metacognition, and sense-making in mathematics. In D. Grouws (Eds.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 334-70). New-York: MacMillan.