Presenting language (text or speech) to the student using first- and second-person pronouns, as well as polite and informal language.
See: Clark, R. C. and Mayer, R. E. (2003). e-Learning and the Science of Instruction. Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
Tailoring instructional content to match the learner's personal interests or preferences.
See: Cordova, D. I. & Lepper, M. R. (1996). Intrinsic Motivation and the Process of Learning: Beneficial Effects of Contextualization, Personalization, and Choice. Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol. 88,l No. 4, 715-730.