Difference between revisions of "Post-practice reflection"

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Post-practice reflection activities often involve some kind of dialogue between the student and another agent (teacher, peer, or computer tutor).
 
Post-practice reflection activities often involve some kind of dialogue between the student and another agent (teacher, peer, or computer tutor).
  
Here are the instructions to self-explain, taken from Chi et al. (1994):
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=== Examples ===
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Here is a sample Reflective Dialogue, incorporated within the Andes physics tutoring system (VanLehn et al., 2005):
  
"We would like you to read each sentence out loud and then explain what it means to you. That is, what<br>
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{| cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1"
new information does each line provide for you, how does it relate to what you've already read, does it give<br>
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|+ '''An example of a Post-Practice Reflective Dialogue'''
you a new insight into your understanding of how the circulatory system works, or does it raise a question<br>
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|-
in your mind. Tell us whatever is going through your mind–even if it seems unimportant."<br>
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| style="border-bottom: 3px solid grey;" |
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&nbsp; &nbsp; <br>ANDES PROBLEM ROTS4A: A 5.00 kg ball is attached to a 2.00 m rope which will break if the tension exceeds 100 N. If the ball is made to swing in a vertical circle, what is the maximum velocity with which the ball can pass through the lowest point?<br><br>
  
These prompts were reworded to be used in Hausmann & VanLehn (2007):
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&nbsp; &nbsp; TUTOR: Which major principle did you need to solve the problem? [Just the name, please]<br><br>
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&nbsp; &nbsp; STUDENT: Newton's 2nd law<br><br>
  
* What new information does each step provide for you?
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&nbsp; &nbsp; TUTOR: Yes. The main difference between this problem and most of the previous N2L problems is the fact that the direction of acceleration is __________. (fill in the blank)<br><br>
* How does it relate to what you've already seen?
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* Does it give you a new insight into your understanding of how to solve the problems?
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* Does it raise a question in your mind?
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These prompts were then included as text, just below a worked-out example. The example was presented as a video taken of the Andes interface, with a voice-over narration describing the user-interface actions (see Table below). In this example, the student is learning how to solve the following problem:
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&nbsp; &nbsp; STUDENT: centripetal<br><br>
  
<Blockquote>A charged particle is in a region where there is an electric field E of magnitude<br>
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&nbsp; &nbsp; TUTOR: Correct. All else being the same, how would the velocity at the lowest point of the swing change if the length of the rope were doubled to 4.0 m? <br><br>
14.3 V/m at an angle of 22 degrees above the positive x-axis. If the charge on the particle<br>
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is -7.9 C, find the magnitude of the force on the particle P due to the electric field E.</Blockquote>
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<br>
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&nbsp; &nbsp; STUDENT: it would also double <br><br>
  
{| cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1"
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&nbsp; &nbsp; TUTOR: Well, it would increase, but it would not double; recall that the formula for centripetal acceleration involves the square of the velocity.  If the radius doubles, the square of the velocity would double also, to maintain the same centripetal acceleration.<br><br>
|+ '''An example of prompting for self-explanining'''
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|-
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| style="border-bottom: 3px solid grey;" |
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&nbsp; &nbsp; Now that all the given information has been entered, we need to apply<br> our knowledge of physics to solve the problem.<br>
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&nbsp; &nbsp; One way to start is to ask ourselves, “What quantity is the problem seeking?” <br> In this case, the answer is the magnitude of the force on the particle due to <br> the electric field.<br>
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&nbsp; &nbsp; All else being the same, how would the velocity at the lowest point of the swing change if the mass of the ball were doubled to 10 kg?<br><br>
  
&nbsp; &nbsp; We know that there is an electric field. If there is an electric field, <br> and there is a charged particle located in that region, then we can infer <br> that there is an electric force on the particle. The direction of the <br> electric force is in the opposite direction as the electric field because <br> the charge on the particle is negative.
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&nbsp; &nbsp; STUDENT: it would decrease...<br>
  
&nbsp; &nbsp; We use the Force tool from the vector tool bar to draw the electric force. <br> This brings up a dialog box. The force is on the particle and it is due to some <br> unspecified source. We do know, however, that the type of force is electric, so <br> we choose “electric” from the pull-down menu. For the orientation, we need to <br> add 180 degrees to 22 degrees to get a force that is in a direction that is <br> opposite of the direction of the electric field. Therefore we put 202 degrees. <br> Finally, we use “Fe” to designate this as an electric force.
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|}
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== References ==
  
<center>[ PROMPT ]</center>
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Katz, S., & Allbritton, D., & Connelly, J. (2003). Going beyond the problem given: How human tutors use post-solution discussions to support transfer. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Education, 13 (1), 79-116.<br>
  
&nbsp; &nbsp; Now that the direction of the electric force has been indicated, we can work on <br>finding the magnitude. We must choose a principle that relates the magnitude <br> of the electric force to the strength of the electric field, and the charge on the <br> particle. The definition of an electric field is only equation that relates these <br> three variables. We write this equation, in the equation window.
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Katz, S., Connelly, J., & Wilson, C. (2007).  Out of the Lab and into the Classroom: An Evaluation of Reflective Dialogue in Andes.  In K. Koedinger and R. Luckin (Eds.), Proceedings of AI in Education 2007.<br>
  
<center>[ PROMPT ]</center>
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Katz, S., Connelly, J., & Wilson, C. (2007).  An Evaluation of Reflective Dialogue in Andes.  Poster presented at the Physics Education Research Conference (PERC 2007), Greensboro, NC.<br>
  
|}
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Lee, A. Y., & Hutchison, L. (1998). Improving learning from examples through reflection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 4 (3), 187-210.<br><br>
Note. PROMPT = "Please begin your self-explanation."
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VanLehn, K., Lynch, C., Schulze, K., Shapiro, J.A., Shelby, R., Taylor, L., Treacy, D., Weinstein, A., & Wintersgill, M. (2005). The Andes physics tutoring system: Lessons learned. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Education, 15 (3).<br><br>
  
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VanLehn, K., Lynch, C., Schulze, K. Shapiro, J. A., Shelby, R., Taylor, L., Treacy, D., Weinstein, A., & Wintersgill, M. (2005). The Andes physics tutoring system: Five years of evaluations. In G. McCalla, C. K. Looi, B. Bredeweg & J. Breuker (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education (pp. 678-685). Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.<br><br>
  
 
[[Category:Glossary]]
 
[[Category:Glossary]]
 
[[Category:Independent Variables]]
 
[[Category:Independent Variables]]
 
[[Category:Interactive Communication]]
 
[[Category:Interactive Communication]]
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[[Category:Instructional Principles]]

Latest revision as of 14:46, 13 January 2008

Brief statement of principle

Post-practice reflection involves activities that follow successful completion of a quantitative problem aimed at helping students to understand the concepts associated with that problem and to develop abstract problem-solving schema. Such schema are a kind of knowledge component that if acquired with high feature validity will help students with solving similar (near transfer) problems, and perhaps also far-transfer problems.

Post-practice reflection activities often involve some kind of dialogue between the student and another agent (teacher, peer, or computer tutor).

Examples

Here is a sample Reflective Dialogue, incorporated within the Andes physics tutoring system (VanLehn et al., 2005):

An example of a Post-Practice Reflective Dialogue

   
ANDES PROBLEM ROTS4A: A 5.00 kg ball is attached to a 2.00 m rope which will break if the tension exceeds 100 N. If the ball is made to swing in a vertical circle, what is the maximum velocity with which the ball can pass through the lowest point?

    TUTOR: Which major principle did you need to solve the problem? [Just the name, please]

    STUDENT: Newton's 2nd law

    TUTOR: Yes. The main difference between this problem and most of the previous N2L problems is the fact that the direction of acceleration is __________. (fill in the blank)

    STUDENT: centripetal

    TUTOR: Correct. All else being the same, how would the velocity at the lowest point of the swing change if the length of the rope were doubled to 4.0 m?

    STUDENT: it would also double

    TUTOR: Well, it would increase, but it would not double; recall that the formula for centripetal acceleration involves the square of the velocity. If the radius doubles, the square of the velocity would double also, to maintain the same centripetal acceleration.

    All else being the same, how would the velocity at the lowest point of the swing change if the mass of the ball were doubled to 10 kg?

    STUDENT: it would decrease...

References

Katz, S., & Allbritton, D., & Connelly, J. (2003). Going beyond the problem given: How human tutors use post-solution discussions to support transfer. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Education, 13 (1), 79-116.

Katz, S., Connelly, J., & Wilson, C. (2007). Out of the Lab and into the Classroom: An Evaluation of Reflective Dialogue in Andes. In K. Koedinger and R. Luckin (Eds.), Proceedings of AI in Education 2007.

Katz, S., Connelly, J., & Wilson, C. (2007). An Evaluation of Reflective Dialogue in Andes. Poster presented at the Physics Education Research Conference (PERC 2007), Greensboro, NC.

Lee, A. Y., & Hutchison, L. (1998). Improving learning from examples through reflection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 4 (3), 187-210.

VanLehn, K., Lynch, C., Schulze, K., Shapiro, J.A., Shelby, R., Taylor, L., Treacy, D., Weinstein, A., & Wintersgill, M. (2005). The Andes physics tutoring system: Lessons learned. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Education, 15 (3).

VanLehn, K., Lynch, C., Schulze, K. Shapiro, J. A., Shelby, R., Taylor, L., Treacy, D., Weinstein, A., & Wintersgill, M. (2005). The Andes physics tutoring system: Five years of evaluations. In G. McCalla, C. K. Looi, B. Bredeweg & J. Breuker (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education (pp. 678-685). Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.