Off-Task Behavior

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Baker (2007) defines off-task behavior in learning environments as behavior "where a student completely disengages from the learning environment and task to engage in an unrelated behavior".

Recent studies have suggested that off-task behavior is associated with poorer learning in individual use of Cognitive Tutors (Baker, Corbett, Koedinger, & Wagner, 2004; Baker, 2007) but with more positive effects on learning in collaborative use of learning software (Kumar et al, 2007)


  • Baker, R.S.J.d. (2007) Modeling and Understanding Students' Off-Task Behavior in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007: Computer-Human Interaction, 1059-1068. pdf
  • Baker, R. S., Corbett, A. T., Koedinger, K. R., & Wagner, A. Z. (2004). Off-Task Behavior in the Cognitive Tutor Classroom: When Students “Game the System”. ACM CHI 2004: Computer-Human Interaction, 383-390. pdf
  • Kumar, R., Gweon, G., Joshi, M., Cui, Y., Rosé, C.P. (2007) Supporting students working together on Math with Social Dialogue, Workshop on Speech and Language Technology in Education, Farmington, Pennsylvania, 2007.